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@article{ Hochman2014,
 title = {Relations between Second-Language Proficiency and National Identification: The Case of Immigrants in Germany},
 author = {Hochman, Oshrat and Davidov, Eldad},
 journal = {European Sociological Review},
 number = {3},
 pages = {344-359},
 volume = {30},
 year = {2014},
 issn = {1468-2672},
 doi = {},
 urn = {},
 abstract = {This article discusses and empirically tests the relations between German language proficiency
and national identification with Germany among first-generation immigrants in Germany. It presents three
theoretical arguments: (i) language proficiency positively affects national identification; (ii) contrastingly,
national identification positively influences language proficiency; and (iii) there is a reciprocal relationship
between both constructs. To test these potentially contradictory claims empirically, we use data on firstgeneration
immigrants in Germany measured in four waves (1997, 1999, 2001, and 2003) from the German
Socio-Economic Panel study. Language proficiency is operationalized with the variable proficiency in
German language. Hypotheses are tested using autoregressive cross-lagged structural equation models.
Findings demonstrate an effect of language proficiency on national identification among immigrants in
Germany. However, data provide no support for an effect in the other direction.},
 keywords = {Bundesrepublik Deutschland; competence; kulturelle Integration; German language; German as a second language; Kompetenz; first generation; erste Generation; Federal Republic of Germany; Sprachkenntnisse; SOEP; nationale Identität; SOEP; Deutsch als Zweitsprache; cultural integration; knowledge of languages; language behavior; Einwanderung; immigration; deutsche Sprache; Sprachverhalten; national identity}}