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@article{ Waack1995,
 title = {Persistenz und Dynamik der Siedlungsstruktur im polnisch-russischen Grenzgebiet},
 author = {Waack, Christoph},
 journal = {Europa Regional},
 number = {1},
 pages = {35-46},
 volume = {3},
 year = {1995},
 issn = {0943-7142},
 urn = {},
 abstract = {The present-day Polish-Russian border region
was, until 1945, a widely homogeneously structured
region in Eastern Prussia. A process of
transformation began in this region, sparked off
by the division and resettlement. This course of
the process and the current situation were recorded
using the communities of Wehlau (now
Russian: Snamensk) and Bartenstein (now Polish:
Bartoszycc) as examples. The part of the rural test region which, after
1945, became part of the Soviet Union was
completely transformed. A drastic drop in the
settlement network began and the system of
urban centres was changed drastically. As a
result of the regional and economic policy, the
main farming locations assumed the central
function in the rural region, whereas some former
main villages are now in a state of complete
desolation. This process of concentration was
the response of the Soviet regional planning
policy to the given migration from the country
to the cities, which also affected the newly resettled
population. The improvement in the conditions
of life in choice perspective settlements
was intended to halt this process of migration.
The existing industrial facilities, dating back to
the German period, were included in this concept.
These businesses now have great difficulties
in adjusting to the present process of transformation.
In the rural areas, first signs of decentralisation
since the privatisation of the farming
businesses can be noted.
In the Polish test region – compared to its
Russian counterpart – no such marked change
in the cultural landscape has come to pass.
Similar production forms in the farming sector
(a mixture of large co-operative businesses and
private farmers) lead to the existing settlement
structures being taken over. Only the central
location of Bartoszycc experienced an increase
in importance from the Polish regional planning
policy. The opening up of a border between
Poland and Russia in 1993 leads to further
growth impulses, as the region’s „dead-end“ location
changed to become a „corridor“ location.
The East then became comparatively less
wealthy, as the business, trade and service sectors
are far better developed in the Polish area.
Whereas, at the moment, in the Polish test region
a clearly visible change towards economic
growth – linked to many social problems – can
be seen, this tendency has not (yet) come to
pass in the Russian test region. Rather the social
and economic downfall is becoming increasingly
 keywords = {Polen; Poland; Russland; Russia; Grenzgebiet; border region; Siedlungsstruktur; settlement pattern; Wirtschaftsentwicklung; economic development (on national level); Ungleichheit; inequality; Raumordnungspolitik; regional planning policy; ländlicher Raum; rural area; Entwicklung; development; Siedlung; settlement; Staatsgrenze; national border; historische Entwicklung; historical development}}