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@article{ Brade1994,
 title = {Sankt Petersburg: Bedeutungswandel und Entwicklungsperspektiven einer osteuropäischen Metropole},
 author = {Brade, Isolde},
 journal = {Europa Regional},
 number = {1},
 pages = {1-13},
 volume = {2},
 year = {1994},
 issn = {0943-7142},
 urn = {},
 abstract = {St. Petersburg is one of the few metropolitan
centres of Europe the development of which
was consequently planned and carried through
right from its foundation. Its development can
be divided into three important phases: (1) Its
development into a world-famous city of culture
and trade until the beginning of the 20th century;
(2) its development into the second largest
industrial centre of the Soviet Union; (3) its transformation
into an modern multi-functional business
centre in East Europe since the beginning
of the 1990s.
The town was founded in 1703 at a site on
the Baltic coast of strategic importance as a
„window to Europe“, far away from the influence
of Moscow, the old capital of patriarchal
Russia. Within only 200 years St. Petersburg
developed into a cultural and economic centre
right between East and West Europe. Along with
the formation of capitalist economic structures,
the town turned into an important international
centre of finance. Already in 1897 the number
of inhabitants amounted to 1.27 million. Traditionally,
the number of foreigners was very high,
especially among the intelligentsia and the armed
forces and in economy. The ethnic composition
was characterized by a high proportion of
non-Russian nationalities (13 per cent) with the
Germans taking the first place (4.6 per cent).
With the beginning of the Soviet era Leningrad
lost not only its name and its status as
capital but also its function as a „window to
Europe“. From a European metropolis it developed
into an important industrial centre of
the Soviet Union and was a basis for the economic
development of the North-Western region.
The main emphasis in industrial development
was on the processing branches, in particular
metal processing, and military-oriented branches.
This brought about a strong increase in intraurban
building density as well as a great expansion
of the city area due to the establishment of
land-consuming industries and the building of
large housing estates on the urban fringe.
Leningrad’s population increased very rapidly.
Despite interruption by two world wars, civil war
and economic crisis its pupulation size increased
continuously to 3 million until the mid 1950s. In
1990 already 4.5 million people were living in
the actual city area. This increase was caused
chiefly by a government-induced mass influx of
labour from all parts of the Soviet Union. Still
today the share of non-Russians is 11 per cent.
Especially after World War II Leningrad developed
into a technical and scientific centre of the Soviet
Since the beginning of the 1990s St. Petersburg
has started out on a new period that is
characterized by the step-wise introduction of a
market economy and a new geopolitical situation
in the Baltic region. Due to the decline of
the Soviet Union and the loss of former Soviet
ports the importance of St. Petersburg – beside
Kaliningrad the only port on the Baltic coast left
– will change considerably in the years ahead.
Despite present problems – a strong decrease
in industrial production, dismissal of labour,
transformation of military-oriented industrial resources
into civil ones, privatisation of over-sized
industrial combines and trusts – the city
still avails of an enormous innovative potential
(400 scientific and research institutions, highly
qualified labour, a densely structured traffic network
with international connections, a well-established
tourist sector and others) which will provide
it a chance to become again the turntable
between East and West.},
 keywords = {Russland; Russia; Stadtentwicklung; urban development; Bevölkerungsentwicklung; population development; Wirtschaftsentwicklung; economic development (on national level); Wirtschaftsstruktur; economic structure; Stadt; town; Metropole; metropolis; Hafen; harbor; Ostseeraum; Baltic region; historische Entwicklung; historical development; Industrieansiedlung; industrial settlement; Schifffahrt; shipping; Handel; commerce; Besiedlung; settling}}