Endnote export


%T Der Wandel der Landnutzung im Kaliningrader Gebiet: die Beispielregion um Labiau
%A Knappe, Elke
%J Europa Regional
%N 1
%P 7-15
%V 1.1993
%D 1993
%K Kaliningrad (Königsberg); Polessk
%@ 0943-7142
%~ IfL
%> https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-48510-2
%X The former province of East Prussia was detached from Germany at the end of World War II on the basis of the Potsdam Agreement and handed over to Poland and the former Soviet Union, respectively. This meant one of the most dramatic changes in the region's history: all of the resident population fled or was displaced, the historical ties to Germany were cut, the whole hinterland of the region changed. The integration into the Soviet Union led to a complete reorganisation of economy and the administration. The introduction of collective and state farms was a drastic change in agriculture. It can be characterized as a transition from small and medium sized farms to large scale units. For the example area of Labiau (Pollessk) this meant a reduction from about 5 000 farms before 1945 to 8 large scale enterprises in 1991. These enterprises work 2 000 - 3 000 ha of agricultural land. The farm land is used extensively, this holds true for both crop and animal production. This is documented by the yields (approximately 3 600 kg/ha, 3 100 kg milk per cow and year) and on the other hand by the condition of the farm land. The crop land is not subject to a regular annual crop rotation. It is fallow for one or several vegetation periods. The grassland is used for extensive herding with little subsequent mowing and therefore contains a high proportion of weeds. A further problem is that the potential yield can only be attained in connection with a well functioning amelioration system. However, wet grounds and dry ditches can be found in the example area, making cultivation difficult and fostering the growth of rush and weeds that prefer wet locations. The spectrum of crops that are cultivated is limitied to grain and feed crops. These are crops that can be cultivated with relatively limited costs in terms of skilled labour and machinery. The population density has decreased to about fifty percent of the pre-war level. The settlement and road networks thinned out. Isolated buildings and whole settlements were deserted. The character of the settlements changed to the point that they -with the exception of the settlement where the seat of the kolchos/sovchos administration is located- were reduced to residential functions. The agricultural enterprises play a key role in the life of the village community. They are not only employers, but also provide for cultural centers, day-care centers, housing and other community services. The process of privatization that is at issue is difficult to implement because of these interconnections and the lack of a peasant class. In this context it is important to look for optimal farm sizes that are appropriate to natural conditions and to the technical and organizational framework and to put them into practice in the process of land allocation.
%G de
%9 Zeitschriftenartikel
%W GESIS - http://www.gesis.org
%~ SSOAR - http://www.ssoar.info