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@article{ Scharmann1994,
 title = {Meer und Küste - eine neue Raumordnungskategorie in Deutschland? Zum Erfordernis "integrierter" Entwicklungskonzepte am Beispiel der Meeresraumbelastung im deutschen Festlandssockel der Nordsee},
 author = {Scharmann, Ludwig},
 journal = {Europa Regional},
 number = {1},
 pages = {14-20},
 volume = {2.1994},
 year = {1994},
 issn = {0943-7142},
 urn = {},
 abstract = {As a consequence of the continuously increasing utilization of the sea and the environinental stress on the oceans resulting from it the view held so far of a fundamental differentiation between land and sea can no longer be maintained. In Germany, however, like in most other European states there are separate administrative bodies responsible for coastal and marine management. Traditionally, marine administration is in the responsibility of central institutions (e.g. shipping, navigation, fishing, offshore mining, defense) even if in federal states like Germany certain areas of authority are in the responsibility of the Laender. Due to their exclusively sector-oriented tasks, these institutions -both central or federal- lack the ability to overcome the existing fragmentation in jurisdiction and administration. Given the ubiquitous problem of balancing economic growth and environmental quality in coastal and marine zones, it is obvions that a policy is needed integrating jurisdiction, decision - making and public involvement. The longestablished practice of physical planning on the continent considering not only national but also regional and local interests can also be regarded a suitable tool for coastal zone management. In the light of limited natural resources -both on land and under water- "integrated" precautionary planning and management systems should be established. The basic principle of physical planning, namely the weighing up of the varions claims on all important natural resources, offers great advantages - especially from the aspect of public involvement. Basically, there is no difference in finding out and settling utilization conflicts on the dry and on the watercovered surface of the earth. On the state level, the determination of rights of use of continental and marine resources have to be restricted to the "national" interests (i.e. the Federal Republic of Germany as a whole). At the same time, it is necessary to lay down fundamental procedures for the various hiercharchical levels of administration. On the regional level (in Germany the Laender), beside the structuring of spatial development concepts for the coastal and marine zones, emphasis is on the coordination of tasks especially among institutions of subject-related government planning and local authorities. Starting out from the principle that democratic decisions should be made on a level as near as possible to the people affected by them, the biggest potential for conflict -and thus the greatest need for regulation- is to be expected on the local (communal) level. This refers also to the coastal zone and its off-shore area. The article deals with some aspects of and makes some proposals for the "physical planning of the sea" in Germany.},
 keywords = {Bundesrepublik Deutschland; Raumordnung; Küstenregion; coastal region; seas; zoning; Klimawandel; Schadstoff; administration; utilization; Nordsee; environmental impact; Verwaltung; Nutzung; Federal Republic of Germany; pollutant; Meer; climate change; North Sea; Umweltbelastung}}