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@article{ Kemper2015,
 title = {Measuring dispositional optimism in large-scale studies: psychometric evidence for German, Spanish, and Italian versions of the Scale Optimism-Pessimism-2 (SOP2)},
 author = {Kemper, Christoph J. and Wassermann, Maria and Hoppe, Annekatrin and Beierlein, Constanze and Rammstedt, Beatrice},
 journal = {European Journal of Psychological Assessment},
 pages = {1-8},
 volume = {31},
 year = {2015},
 issn = {2151-2426},
 doi = {},
 urn = {},
 abstract = {In different fields of the behavioral sciences, a growing demand for brief measures of psychological constructs can be observed. The current research presents new evidence on the reliability and validity of a recently developed ultra-short measure of the optimism construct sensu Scheier and Carver (1985), the German version of the Scale Optimism-Pessimism-2 (SOP2) as well as first evidence on Spanish and Italian adaptations. Reliability estimates indicate good reliability. Correlations with criteria from the nomological net of the construct are as expected. Equivalence of SOP2 factors across language versions is supported. Due to its highly efficient, yet accurate and valid measurement of the construct, the SOP2 is strongly recommended for assessment settings with severe monetary/time constraints, for example, large-scale surveys. Due to the factor equivalence, the SOP2 is also a valuable measure for cross-cultural studies. (author's abstract)},
 keywords = {psychometrics; Messinstrument; Methodenforschung; analysis; indicator; Datenqualität; Entwicklung; questionnaire; development; data quality; personality psychology; personality research; Skalenkonstruktion; methodological research; Fragebogen; Optimismus; measurement instrument; Persönlichkeitsmerkmal; personality traits; pessimism; scale construction; Indikator; Persönlichkeitspsychologie; personality; Psychometrie; Persönlichkeitsforschung; optimism; Pessimismus; empirische Forschung; Persönlichkeit; empirical research; Analyse}}