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Conversational inference and rational judgment

Gesprächsfolgerungen und rationale Schlußfolgerungen
[research report]

Hilton, Denis J.

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Please use the following Persistent Identifier (PID) to cite this document:http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-68839

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Corporate Editor Zentrum für Umfragen, Methoden und Analysen -ZUMA-
Abstract Rationale Interpretationen von Aussagen und Gesprächen beruhen auf der Annahme, daß der Zuhörer sich eine Hypothese über die Intentionen des Sprechers bildet. Es wird ein Modell für die Konversationsanalyse vorgestellt, mit dessen Hilfe gezeigt wird, daß diese Interpretationen bestimmt werden durch die Attribute, die der Sprecher dem Zuhörer zuschreibt. Das Modell wird auf die Analyse von Experimenten der kognitiven Psychologie und Sozialpsychologie angewendet, wobei sich zeigt, daß die experimentelle Anordnung und die Gesprächseigenschaften die Schlußfolgerungen von Untersuchungspersonen beeinflussen können. (psz)

'Conversational inference is inductive in nature, requiring the listener to go beyond the information explicitly given in a mesage. This requirement runs counter to the assumption that rational subjects should only operate on the information explicitly given in judgment tasks. Rational interpretations of messages are guided by hearers' hypotheses about the speaker's intended meaning. An attributional model of conversational inference is presented which shows how these interpretations are governed by conversational assumptions, which in turn are governed by the attributions the speaker makes about the hearer. The model is then applied to the analysis of experiments on reasoning processes in cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, social psychology and decision research. It is shown that the conversational model can predict how experimental manipulations of relevant source and message attributes affect subjects' judgments. In conclusion, failure to recognize the role of conversational assumptions in governing inference processes can lead rational responses to be misclassified, and misattributed to cognitive shortcomings.' (author's abstract)
Keywords conversation analysis; moderation of discussion; interpretation; opinion; psychology; rationality; speech act
Classification Psychology; Social Psychology
Method basic research
Document language English
Publication Year 1991
City Mannheim
Page/Pages 48,15 p.
Series ZUMA-Arbeitsbericht, 1991/01
Status Published Version; reviewed
Licence Deposit Licence - No Redistribution, No Modifications
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