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Der Wandel des ländlichen Raumes im Gebiet um Cluj-Napoca

The change in the rural districts in the region around Cluj/Rumania
[journal article]

Knappe, Elke; Benedek, Josef

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Abstract The political change has lead to deeply-rooted processes of transformation in the rural districts of Rumania. These processis examined using the example of four villages in the area around Cluj-Napoca. On the one hand, the characteristic changes are the collapse of the previous collective economy and, on the other hand, the development of numerous small, private farming businesses (average company size: 1.8 ha). These small businesses must survive under extremely difficult conditions. They hardly own any capital, few machines, there is a lack of fertilisers, pesticides and seeds. For these reasons, many companies are run as subsistence businesses. However, movement towards the formation of competitive farming companies can already be recognised, a factor which could have positive effects on the development of the rural districts. This is above all true of plant growing firms, which are founded by many single farmers joining forces. Nowadays, animals are usually kept by single farmers alone. Many of the large barns, belonging to the former collective companies have been destroyed and can no longer be used. The four chosen villages characterise the various forms of transition in rural regions to the market economy. The village of Marisel personifies the long tradition of farming economy in the mountain regions of Transilvania. This form of economy is antiquated and it is extremely difficult to implement change. One opportunity to improve the situation would be to develop the tourism sector. First signs of this happening can be seen. The situation is better in the villages of Mihai Viteazu and Turea. Some larger agricultural firms already exist and are attempting to establish themselves in the market economy. Additionally, a certain proportion of the population is engaged in sectors other than agriculture. The village of Siniacob is marked by very few chances for the future. The peripheral location and the lack of infrastructure have lead to the working population leaving the village, thus causing a severe increase in average age. Due to the easily recognisable centralism of the communist era, the harmonious development of the villages in the rural regions of Rumania was affected negatively. Effort is being made at the moment to build up a system of municipal self-administration and to allow the communities more leeway for decision-making.
Keywords Romania; rural area; rural development; village; agriculture; structural change; transformation; population density; administration; area utilization; employment; animal husbandry; resident
Classification Area Development Planning, Regional Research; Economic Sectors; Rural Sociology
Document language German
Publication Year 1995
Page/Pages p. 1-14
Journal Europa Regional, 3.1995 (1995) 4
ISSN 0943-7142
Status Published Version; reviewed
Licence Deposit Licence - No Redistribution, No Modifications