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Demographische Transformationsprozesse in Bulgarien

Demographic transformation processes in Bulgaria
[Zeitschriftenartikel]

Meyerfeldt, Manuela

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Abstract Until the 1940ies Bulgaria was counted as being among the most backward of all European countries. Sofia was the only major city in the country and approximately three quarters of the population inhabited rural areas. In close correlation with the transformation of the economic structures after the Second World War and the forced industrialisation, severe changes in the population development occurred. Marked migrationary movements from the rural districts to the city started, thus leading to an increase in the percentage of older people in the village population and a depopulation of the rural districts. Additionally, in 1989, a wave of emigration to Turkey of approximately 330000 ethnic Turks affected the rural areas of northeastern Bulgaria and the eastern regions of the Rhodope mountains. Since the end of the 80s, there has been an increase in the urban-rural migration, closely linked to the reprivatisation of land. The former village inhabitants returned to their birthplaces. Many pr operty owners who had lived in the cities or the farming districts around the major cities of Plovdiv, Varna, Burgas and Pleven settled in the rural zones around the towns. First tr aces of suburbanisation became noticeable here. The economic transformation since 1989 led to severe economic and social problems. The population development under these conditions was marked by a falling birth rate. In 1990, for the first time, there was no increase in population. As a result of the long-term tendency towards a drop in the birth rate and an increase in mortality, Bulgaria suffered a loss in population of 3000 people in 1990. Between 1989 and 1994 approximately 550000 people left Bulgaria, approximately 78% of these were under the age of 45. The main reasons for this wave of emigration can be found in the high level of unemployment and in the social and economic instability of the country. The outmigration had consider able effects on the falling birth rate. More than a third of the emigrants were women, half of these were under 35 years of age. The rapid increase of male mortality between the ages of 40 and 60 in the last five years has been particularly apparent. Without social and economic measures being taken by the government, no longterm, positive demographic development will be possible in Bulgaria.
Thesaurusschlagwörter Bulgaria; Southeastern Europe; population development; structural change; transformation; town; rural area; demography; mortality; age structure; internal migration
Klassifikation Bevölkerung; Raumplanung und Regionalforschung
Sprache Dokument Deutsch
Publikationsjahr 1996
Seitenangabe S. 24-31
Zeitschriftentitel Europa Regional, 4.1996 (1996) 1
ISSN 0943-7142
Status Veröffentlichungsversion; begutachtet
Lizenz Deposit Licence - Keine Weiterverbreitung, keine Bearbeitung
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