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Policy design and non-design: towards a spectrum of policy formulation types

[journal article]

Howlett, Michael; Mukherjee, Ishani

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Abstract Public policies are the result of efforts made by governments to alter aspects of behaviour -both that of their own agents and of society at large- in order to carry out some end or purpose. They are comprised of arrangements of policy goals and policy means matched through some decision-making process. These policy-making efforts can be more, or less, systematic in attempting to match ends and means in a logical fashion or can result from much less systematic processes. "Policy design" implies a knowledge-based process in which the choice of means or mechanisms through which policy goals are given effect follows a logical process of inference from known or learned relationships between means and outcomes. This includes both design in which means are selected in accordance with experience and knowledge and that in which principles and relationships are incorrectly or only partially articulated or understood. Policy decisions can be careful and deliberate in attempting to best resolve a problem or can be highly contingent and driven by situational logics. Decisions stemming from bargaining or opportunism can also be distinguished from those which result from careful analysis and assessment. This article considers both modes and formulates a spectrum of policy formulation types between "design" and "non-design" which helps clarify the nature of each type and the likelihood of each unfolding.
Keywords decision; politics; decision making; design
Classification Basic Research, General Concepts and History of Political Science
Document language English
Publication Year 2014
Page/Pages p. 57-71
Journal Politics and Governance, 2 (2014) 2
ISSN 2183-2463
Status Published Version; peer reviewed
Licence Creative Commons - Attribution