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Religion and the gender vote gap : women's changed political preferences from the 1970s to 2010

[working paper]

Manow, Philip; Emmenegger, Patrick

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Corporate Editor Universität Bremen, Zentrum für Sozialpolitik
Abstract "For many years women tended to vote more conservative than men (the ‘old’ gender vote gap), but since the 1980s this gap in many countries has shifted direction: now women in many countries are more likely to support left parties than men of the same age, in the same income bracket, and at the same educational level (the ‘new’ gender vote gap). The literature largely agrees on a set of political-economic factors explaining the change in women’s political orientation: changed employment patterns, women’s higher educational achievements, and higher divorce rates. These trends turned women into supporters of generous social programs that promise to ‘de-familialize’ services formerly provided privately within the family. In this paper, we demonstrate that these conventional political-economic factors fall short in explaining the old gender vote gap. We may therefore also harbor doubts whether they provide us with a full story for the new gender vote gap. Instead, we highlight the importance of religion for the gendered pattern of voting behavior that we observe. We argue that where vote choice expressed preferences on a non-economic, i.e. mainly religious issue dimension, parties in the past could afford – at least to some extent – ignoring voters’ socio-economic interests. Given that surveys show us a constantly higher degree of religiosity among women and a relatively persistent and strong impact of religion on vote choice, religion can indeed, we argue, explain a substantial part of the old and new gender vote gap." (author's abstract)
Keywords voting behavior; woman; historical development; gender-specific factors; religion; difference in income; level of education; political attitude
Classification Political Process, Elections, Political Sociology, Political Culture; Women's Studies, Feminist Studies, Gender Studies
Method descriptive study
Document language English
Publication Year 2012
City Bremen
Page/Pages 43 p.
Series ZeS-Arbeitspapier, 1/2012
ISSN 1436-7203
Status Published Version
Licence Deposit Licence - No Redistribution, No Modifications
data provider This metadata entry was indexed by the Special Subject Collection Social Sciences, USB Cologne