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Geschlechtliche Normierung von Studienfächern und Karrieren im Wandel

Change in the gender standardization of subjects of study and careers
[journal article]

Costas, Ilse; Roß, Bettina; Suchi, Stefan

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Abstract Bei einem internationalen Vergleich der geschlechtsspezifischen Verteilung bei den akademischen Berufen fällt auf, dass Männer- und Frauenberuf, Männer- und Frauenstudienfächer entgegen den traditionellen Männlichkeits- und Weiblichkeitsvorstellungen relativ stark variieren. So wurde zum Beispiel der Richterberuf bis 1945 als Inkarnation der Männlichkeit betrachtet; heute gilt er mit einem Anteil von über 50 Prozent als 'feminisiert'. Der Beitrag geht folgenden Fragen nach: Wie kommt es zu diesen Veränderungen und Wandlungen bei den geschlechtsspezifischen Zuschreibungen? Welche Faktoren, sozialen Prozesse und kulturellen Diskurse führen zu Widersprüchen zwischen den Konstruktionen der geschlechtlichen Normierungen und den gesellschaftlichen Praktiken? Diese Fragestellungen werden im Längsschnitt am Beispiel der Entwicklung in Deutschland seit der Zulassung der Frauen zum Studium Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts bis 1945 diskutiert. (ICA)

'Common wisdom holds that from the beginning women entered some academic fields such as the humanities and avoided others for example physics or mathematics. Developments in Germany up to the 1930s contradict this assumption: In the natural sciences and mathematics, the percentage of female students was higher than the average percentage of female students in all other academic fields. What contributed to, what caused this unexpected distribution? How can we explain the discontinuities in the long-term developments of female students' relative frequencies in specific academic subjects? Some answers to these questions are discussed in this study, containing results of a current research project financed by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. The basic assumptions refer to the theory of doing gender: This theory claims that what is characterized as typically male or female is historically variable and constructed according to specific cultural and social contexts. Thus essentialism is negated. The main data base of this project are educational statistics of German universities. Our statistical analyses (e.g. loglinear analysis) and data from other sources show interrelated effects of the development of girls' secondary schools, their preparations for university studies, chances on the labour market and social status on the subjects of study as well as an professional careers. New academic fields like social sciences and economics became gendered very quickly, resulting in segregation of careers by sex. The cultural and educational system and even official recommendaeions constructed gender stereotypes of professions. These stereotypes increasingly influenced female pupils in their career patterns during the 1930s. At that time employment chances in some professions were drastically reduced and administrative restrictions against women were introduced. This occured even before the Nazis seized power.' (author's abstract)
Keywords woman; women's policy; gender role; gender-specific factors; historical development; university; career; structural change; studies (academic); affirmative action; gender relations
Classification Sociology of Education; University Education; Women's Studies, Feminist Studies, Gender Studies
Method empirical; quantitative empirical; historical
Document language German
Publication Year 2000
Page/Pages p. 23-53
Journal Historical Social Research, 25 (2000) 2
ISSN 0172-6404
Status Published Version; peer reviewed
Licence Creative Commons - Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works