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The Nonconscious Road to Perceptions of Performance : Achievement Priming Augments Outcome Expectancies and Experienced Self-Agency

[journal article]

Custers, Ruud; Aarts, Henk; Oikawa, Masanori; Elliot, Andrew

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Please use the following Persistent Identifier (PID) to cite this document:http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-313183

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Abstract Three experiments explored the effects of priming the achievement concept on the expectation of performance outcomes and experiences of self-agency over outcomes in a task in which performance outcomes were dependent on chance. Experiment 1 and 2 showed that achievement priming produced expectations of higher (more successful) outcomes prior to working on the task, regardless of whether priming was subliminal (nonconscious) or supraliminal (conscious) and that this effect could not be attributed to subjective motivation to perform well. Experiment 3 revealed that subliminal achievement priming decreased participants’ experienced self-agency when outcome feedback was low, but increased self-agency when it was high. Together, these results suggest that activating achievement concepts outside of awareness spontaneously triggers expectations of higher task outcomes, which increases or decreases self-agency depending on whether there is a match or mismatch with observed outcomes. Implications for the literature on achievement-priming effects on behavior are discussed.
Classification Social Psychology
Free Keywords Authorship; Unconscious; Causality; Expectancies; Priming; Achievement; Goals; Success; Failure
Document language English
Publication Year 2009
Page/Pages p. 1200-1208
Journal Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45 (2009) 6
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2009.07.013
Status Postprint; peer reviewed
Licence PEER Licence Agreement (applicable only to documents from PEER project)