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Sex differences in the effects of visual contact and eye contact in negotiations

[journal article]

Swaab, Roderick I.; Swaab, Dick F.

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Please use the following Persistent Identifier (PID) to cite this document:http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-277534

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Abstract "Previous research has proposed that the ability to see others would benefit negotiations. We argue that this view is too narrow and that the impact of visual contact on negotiated agreements depends on the meaning individuals ascribe to either its presence or absence. Based on previous research showing that females are more likely to understand others in the presence of visual contact while males understand others better in the absence of visual contact, we explore how visual contact, eye contact, and sex affect the quality of negotiated agreements in a meta-analysis (Study 1) and a laboratory experiment (Study 2). The two studies combined show that because direct communication via the face facilitates a shared understanding for two unacquainted females, their agreements are of higher quality when they have visual contact compared to when they do not (Study 1), and if they have visual contact, their agreements are better when they have eye contact than when they do not (Study 2). Because communication via the face increases discomfort between two unacquainted males, their agreements are of higher quality when they do not have visual contact (Study 1), and if they do have visual contact, their agreements are better when they have no eye contact than when they do (Study 2)." [author's abstract]
Classification Social Psychology
Free Keywords Visual contact; Eye contact; Sex differences; Negotiation
Document language English
Publication Year 2008
Page/Pages p. 129-136
Journal Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45 (2008) 1
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2008.06.009
Status Postprint; peer reviewed
Licence PEER Licence Agreement (applicable only to documents from PEER project)