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Temperament and parental child-rearing style: unique contributions to clinical anxiety disorders in childhood

[journal article]

Lindhout, Ingeborg E.; Markus, Monica Th.; Hoogendijk, Thea H. G.; Boer, Frits

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Abstract Both temperament and parental child-rearing style are found to be associated with childhood anxiety disorders in population studies. This study investigates the contribution of not only temperament but also parental child-rearing to clinical childhood anxiety disorders. It also investigates whether the contribution of temperament is moderated by child-rearing style, as is suggested by some studies in the general population. Fifty children were included (25 with anxiety disorders and 25 non-clinical controls). Child-rearing and the child’s temperament were assessed by means of parental questionnaire (Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR) (Block in The Child-Rearing Practices Report. Institute of Human Development. University of California, Berkely, 1965; The Child-Rearing Practices Report (CRPR): a set of Q items for the description of parental socialisation attitudes and values. Unpublished manuscript. Institute of Human Development. University of California, Berkely, 1981), EAS Temperament Survey for Children (Boer and Westenberg in J Pers Assess 62:537–551, 1994; Buss and Plomin in Temperament: early developing personality traits. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Hillsdale, 1984s). Analysis of variance showed that anxiety-disordered children scored significantly higher on the temperamental characteristics emotionality and shyness than non-clinical control children. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that temperament (emotionality and shyness) and child-rearing style (more parental negative affect, and less encouraging independence of the child) both accounted for a unique proportion of the variance of anxiety disorders. Preliminary results suggest that child-rearing style did not moderate the association between children’s temperament and childhood anxiety disorders. The limited sample size might have been underpowered to assess this interaction.
Classification Medical Sociology; Medicine, Social Medicine
Free Keywords temperament; child anxiety disorder; child-rearing style; parent report;
Publication Year 2009
Page/Pages p. 439-446
Journal European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 18 (2009) 7
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00787-009-0753-9
Status Postprint; reviewed
Licence PEER Licence Agreement (applicable only to documents from PEER project)